Tech Dreams

Ingredient Substitutes while Baking

In our normal cooking, we substitute the vegetables for the gravies we prepare. When we start baking, we look for a good recipe. At least one or two ingredient will be missing. We do not know where to substitute what to bring same output. So we finally drop the plan of baking. Again after a month, we get the interest in baking. Again one or two lack of ingredient and that’s it. We keep on doing this for months. When I was going through the cooking blogs, I came across a site with the Ingredient Substitutes for Baking:

Baking

(*) is to indicate that this substitution is ideal from personal experience.
Flour Substitutes ( For 1 cup of Flour)
All Purpose Flour

  • 1/2 cup white cake flour plus 1/2 cup whole wheat flour
  • 1 cup self-rising flour (omit using salt and baking powder if the recipe calls for it since self raising flour has it already)
  • 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons cake flour
  • 1/2 cup (75 grams) whole wheat flour
  • 7/8 cup (130 grams) rice flour (starch) (do not replace all of the flour with the rice flour)
  • 7/8 cup whole wheat

Bread Flour

  • 1 cup all purpose flour
  • 1 cup all purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon wheat gluten (*)

Cake Flour

  • Place 2 tbsp cornstarch in 1 cup and fill the rest up with All Purpose flour (*)
  • 1 cup all purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons Pastry flour
  • Place 2 tbsp cornstarch in 1 cup and fill the rest up with All Purpose flour
  • Equal parts of All purpose flour plus cake flour (*)

Self-rising Flour

  • 1½ teaspoons of baking powder plus ½ teaspoon of salt plus 1 cup of all-purpose flour.

Cornstarch (1 tbsp)

  • 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • 1 tablespoon arrowroot
  • 4 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca
  • 1 tablespoon potato starch or rice starch or flour

Tapioca (1 tbsp)

  • 1 – 1/2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

Cornmeal (stone ground)

  • polenta OR corn flour (gives baked goods a lighter texture)
  • if using cornmeal for breading,crush corn chips in a blender until they have the consistency of cornmeal.
  • maize meal
  • Corn grits

Sweeteners ( for Every 1 cup )
* * (HV) denotes Healthy Version for low fat or fat free substitution in Baking
Light Brown Sugar

  • 2 tablespoons molasses plus 1 cup of white sugar

Dark Brown Sugar

  • 3 tablespoons molasses plus 1 cup of white sugar

Confectioner’s/Powdered Sugar

  • Process 1 cup sugar plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch

Corn Syrup

  • 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water
  • 1 cup Golden Syrup
  • 1 cup honey (may be little sweeter)
  • 1 cup molasses

Golden Syrup

  • Combine two parts light corn syrup plus one part molasses
  • 1/2 cup honey plus 1/2 cup corn syrup
  • 1 cup maple syrup
  • 1 cup corn syrup

Honey

  • 1- 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water
  • 3/4 cup maple syrup plus 1/2 cup granulated sugar
  • 3/4 cup corn syrup plus 1/2 cup granulated sugar
  • 3/4 cup light molasses plus 1/2 cup granulated white sugar
  • 1 1/4 cups granulated white or brown sugar plus 1/4 cup additional liquid in recipe plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

Maple Syrup

  • 1 cup honey,thinned with water or fruit juice like apple
  • 3/4 cup corn syrup plus 1/4 cup butter
  • 1 cup Brown Rice Syrup
  • 1 cup Brown sugar (in case of cereals)
  • 1 cup light molasses (on pancakes, cereals etc)
  • 1 cup granulated sugar for every 3/4 cup of maple syrup and increase liquid in the recipe by 3 tbsp for every cup of sugar.If baking soda is used, decrease the amount by 1/4 teaspoon per cup of sugar substituted, since sugar is less acidic than maple syrup

Molasses

  • 1 cup honey
  • 1 cup dark corn syrup
  • 1 cup maple syrup
  • 3/4 cup brown sugar warmed and dissolved in 1/4 cup of liquid ( use this if taste of molasses is important in the baked good)

Cocoa Powder (Natural, Unsweetened)

  • 3 tablespoons (20 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar
  • 1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)
  • 3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder

Semisweet baking chocolate (1 oz)

  • 1 oz unsweetened baking chocolate plus 1 Tbsp sugar

Unsweetened baking chocolate (1 oz )

  • 3 Tbsp baking cocoa plus 1 Tbsp vegetable oil or melted shortening or margarine

Semisweet chocolate chips (1 cup)

  • 6 oz semisweet baking chocolate, chopped
  • (Alternatively) For 1 cup of Semi sweet chocolate chips you can use : 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder, 7 tablespoons sugar ,1/4 cup fat (butter or oil)

Leaveners and Diary
* * (HV) denotes Healthy Version for low fat or fat free substitution in Baking
Compressed Yeast (1 cake)

  • 1 envelope or 2 teaspoons active dry yeast

1 packet (1/4 ounce) Active Dry yeast

  • 1 cake fresh compressed yeast
  • 1 tablespoon fast-rising active yeast

Baking Powder (1 tsp)

  • 1/3 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
  • 1/2 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt
  • 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/3 cup molasses. When using the substitutions that include liquid, reduce other liquid in recipe accordingly

Baking Soda(1 tsp)

  • 3 tsp Baking Powder ( and reduce the acidic ingredients in the recipe. Ex Instead of buttermilk add milk)
  • 1 tsp potassium bicarbonate
  • Ideal substitution – 2 tsp Baking powder and omit salt in recipe

Cream of tartar (1 tsp)

  • 1 teaspoon white vinegar
  • 1 tsp lemon juice
  • Notes from What’s Cooking America – If cream of tartar is used along with baking soda in a cake or cookie recipe, omit both and use baking powder instead. If it calls for baking soda and cream of tarter, just use baking powder.Normally, when cream of tartar is used in a cookie, it is used together with baking soda. The two of them combined work like double-acting baking powder. When substituting for cream of tartar, you must also substitute for the baking soda. If your recipe calls for baking soda and cream of tarter, just use baking powder. One teaspoon baking powder is equivalent to 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar. If there is additional baking soda that does not fit into the equation, simply add it to the batter.

Buttermilk (1 cup)

  • 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar (white or cider) plus enough milk to make 1 cup (let stand 5-10 minutes)
  • 1 cup plain or low fat yogurt
  • 1 cup sour cream
  • 1 cup water plus 1/4 cup buttermilk powder
  • 1 cup milk plus 1 1/2 – 1 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar

Plain Yogurt (1 cup)

  • 1 cup sour cream
  • 1 cup buttermilk
  • 1 cup crème fraiche
  • 1 cup heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1 tablespoon freshly squeezed lemon juice

Whole Milk (1 cup)

  • 1 cup fat free milk plus 1 tbsp unsaturated Oil like canola (HV)
  • 1 cup low fat milk (HV)

Heavy Cream (1 cup)

  • 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup melted butter.(whipping wont work)

Sour Cream (1 cup)
(pls refer also Substitutes for Fats in Baking below)

  • 7/8 cup buttermilk or sour milk plus 3 tablespoons butter.
  • 1 cup thickened yogurt plus 1 teaspoon baking soda.
  • 3/4 cup sour milk plus 1/3 cup butter.
  • 3/4 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup butter.
  • Cooked sauces: 1 cup yogurt plus 1 tablespoon flour plus 2 teaspoons water.
  • Cooked sauces: 1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice. Let stand 5 minutes to thicken.
  • Dips: 1 cup yogurt (drain through a cheesecloth-lined sieve for 30 minutes in the refrigerator for a thicker texture).
  • Dips: 1 cup cottage cheese plus 1/4 cup yogurt or buttermilk, briefly whirled in a blender.
  • Dips: 6 ounces cream cheese plus 3 tablespoons milk,briefly whirled in a blender.
  • Lower fat: 1 cup low-fat cottage cheese plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice plus 2 tablespoons skim milk, whipped until smooth in a blender.
  • Lower fat: 1 can chilled evaporated milk whipped with 1 teaspoon lemon juice.
  • 1 cup plain yogurt plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch
  • 1 cup plain nonfat yogurt

Substitutes for Fats in Baking
* * (HV) denoted Healthy Version for low fat or fat free substitution in Baking
Butter (1 cup)

  • 1 cup trans-free vegetable shortening
  • 3/4 cups of vegetable oil (example. Canola oil)
  • Fruit purees (example- applesauce, pureed prunes, baby-food fruits). Add it along with some vegetable oil and reduce any other sweeteners needed in the recipe since fruit purees are already sweet.
  • 1 cup polyunsaturated margarine (HV)
  • 3/4 cup polyunsaturated oil like safflower oil (HV)
  • 1 cup mild olive oil (not extra virgin)(HV)
  • Note: Butter creates the flakiness and the richness which an oil/purees cant provide. If you don’t want to compromise that much to taste, replace half the butter with the substitutions.

Shortening(1 cup)

  • 1 cup polyunsaturated margarine like Earth Balance or Smart Balance(HV)
  • 1 cup + 2tbsp Butter ( better tasting than shortening but more expensive and has cholesterol and a higher level of saturated fat; makes cookies less crunchy, bread crusts more crispy)
  • 1 cup + 2 tbsp Margarine (better tasting than shortening but more expensive; makes cookies less crunchy, bread crusts tougher)
  • 1 Cup – 2tbsp Lard (Has cholesterol and a higher level of saturated fat)

Oil

  • equal amount of apple sauce
  • stiffly beaten egg whites into batter
  • equal parts mashed banana
  • equal parts yogurt
  • prune puree
  • grated raw zucchini or seeds removed if cooked. Works well in quick breads/muffins/coffee cakes and does not alter taste
  • pumpkin puree (if the recipe can handle the taste change)
  • Low fat cottage cheese (use only half of the required fat in the recipe). Can give rubbery texture to the end result
  • Silken Tofu – (use only half of the required fat in the recipe). Can give rubbery texture to the end result
  • Equal parts of fruit juice
  • Note: Fruit purees can alter the taste of the final product is used in large quantities.

Cream Cheese (1 cup)

  • 4 tbsps. margarine plus 1 cup low-fat cottage cheese – blended. Add few teaspoons of fat-free milk if needed (HV)

Heavy Cream (1 cup)

  • 1 cup evaporated skim milk (or full fat milk)
  • 1/2 cup low fat Yogurt plus 1/2 low fat Cottage Cheese (HV)
  • 1/2 cup Yogurt plus 1/2 Cottage Cheese

Sour Cream (1 cup)

  • 1 cup plain yogurt (HV)
  • 3/4 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt plus 1/3 cup melted butter
  • 1 cup crème fraiche
  • 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough whole milk to fill 1 cup (let stand 5-10 minutes)
  • 1/2 cup low-fat cottage cheese plus 1/2 cup low-fat or nonfat yogurt (HV)
  • 1 cup fat-free sour cream (HV)

Note: How to Make Maple Syrup Substitute at home
For 1 Cup Maple Syrup

1/2 cup granulated sugar
1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed
1 cup boiling water
1 teaspoon butter
1 teaspoon maple extract or vanilla extract
Method
In a heavy saucepan, place the granulated sugar and keep stirring until it melts and turns slightly brown. Alternatively in another pan, place brown sugar and water and bring to a boil without stirring. Now mix both the sugars and simmer in low heat until they come together as one thick syrup. Remove from heat, add butter and the extract. Use this in place of maple syrup.
Store it in a fridge in an air tight container.

Even though this was posted in their site long back, I found it helpful. So posting it for you.

via chefinyou . cc image credit: flickr/zetrules